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Table 2 Characteristics of survey participants

From: Ranking major and minor research misbehaviors: results from a survey among participants of four World Conferences on Research Integrity

Male (%) 53
Age (years (sd)) 53 (12.7)
Region (%)
 Western Europe 31
 North America 28
 South America 20
 Asia 7
 Eastern Europe 5
 Africa 5
 Australia/New Zealand/Pacific 4
 Setting (%)
 University or university medical center 70
 Non-profit research institute 8
 For-profit research institute 2
 Funding organization 2
 Government 7
 Academic publisher 5
 Other 6
Job title (%)
 Full professor 25
 Associate professor 12
 Assistant professor 7
 PhD student 7
 Postdoc 1
 Policy maker/policy advisor 14
 Administrator 7
 Other 27
Disciplinary field (%)
 Biomedical sciences 58
 Social sciences 19
 Natural sciences 15
 Humanities 8
Holds PhD degree (%) 68
Years since PhD degree (sd) 23 (13.0)
  1. Thirty-five percent of the 227 respondents did not answer these questions
  2. sd standard deviation