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Table 4 Ranking of research misconduct items: fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism

From: Ranking major and minor research misbehaviors: results from a survey among participants of four World Conferences on Research Integrity

Item Frequency Mean score (rank number) Impact on truth Mean score (rank number) Frequency × truth Mean score (rank number)
Fabricate data 1.88 (59) 4.63 (1) 8.82 (34)
Selectively delete data, modify data, or add fabricated data after performing initial data-analyses (F) 2.22 (50) 4.37 (2) 9.68 (24)
Delete data before performing data analysis without disclosure (F) 2.48 (45) 4.02 (6) 10.10 (19)
Duplicate publication without disclosure (P) 2.74 (36) 2.65 (49) 7.08 (48)
Re-use of previously published data without disclosure (P) 2.78 (29) 2.91 (46) 8.56 (36)
Use unpublished phrases or ideas of others without their permission (P) 2.92 (21) 2.96 (41) 8.84 (33)
Re-use parts of your own publications without referencing (P) 3.04 (15) 2.37 (55) 7.20 (46)
Use published phrases or ideas of others without referencing (P) 3.11 (12) 2.94 (43) 9.55 (26)
  1. F falsification, P plagiarism