Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of all 36 articles in chlorinated water network

From: Selective citation in the literature on swimming in chlorinated water and childhood asthma: a network analysis

  N publications n citations (%) realized n citations (%) not realized
Total   36 191 (34%) 379 (66%)
Article characteristics, study outcome Category N publications n citations (%) realized n citations (%) not realized
 Authors’ conclusion Positive 16 115 (42%) 161 (58%)
Negative 10 47 (32%) 102 (68%)
Mixed 5 17 (27%) 47 (73%)
 Data-based conclusion Positive 6 44 (48%) 48 (52%)
Negative 16 116 (40%) 172 (60%)
Mixed 0 0 0
Article characteristics, other content-related Category N publications n citations (%) realized n citations (%) not realized
 Article type/study design Narrative 14 31 (16%) 159 (84%)
 narrative review 11 18 (13%) 121 (87%)
 commentary 3 13 (26%) 38 (74%)
Empirical 22 160 (42%) 220 (58%)
 cohort 3 10 (37%) 17 (63%)
 cross-sectional 13 91 (44%) 114 (56%)
 pre-experimental 2 16 (31%) 36 (69%)
 multiple designs 1 26 (76%) 8 (24%)
 ecological 1 9 (32%) 19 (68%)
 meta-analysis 1 8 (36%) 14 (64%)
 case study 1 0 (0%) 12 (100%)
 Sample size (cat) Low (1 – 199) 6 17 (20%) 69 (80%)
Medium (200 – 1999) 8 68 (46%) 79 (54%)
High ( ≥ 2000) 8 75 (51%) 72 (49%)
 Study quality (cross-sectional) Good 0
. Fair 9 66 (46%) 77 (54%)
Poor 4 25 (40%) 37 (60%)
 Specificity 1 (non-specific) 5 0 (0%) 36 (100%)
2 7 44 (31%) 96 (69%)
3 9 46 (33%) 92 (67%)
4 11 59 (38%) 96 (62%)
5 (specific) 4 42 (42%) 59 (58%)
Article characteristics, not content-related Category N publications n citations (%) realized n citations (%) not realized
 Language English 33 191 (35%) 353 (65%)
Other 3 0 (0%) 26 (100%)
 Conclusive title Not conclusive 25 124 (31%) 272 (69%)
Conclusive 11 67 (39%) 107 (61%)
 Funding source Non-profit 15 111 (41%) 162 (59%)
For-profit 1 8 (36%) 14 (64%)
Both 5 42 (52%) 39 (48%)
Not reported 15 30 (15%) 164 (85%)
 Number of authors 1 – 2 10 24 (18%) 106 (82%)
3 – 4 11 51 (31%) 114 (71%)
5 – 6 7 40 (49%) 41 (51%)
≥ 7 8 76 (39%) 118 (61%)
 Number of affiliations 1 15 54 (25%) 161 (75%)
2 10 48 (36%) 87 (74%)
≥ 3 11 89 (40%) 131 (60%)
 Number of references < 25 10 18 (14%) 113 (86%)
25 – 40 15 108 (40%) 165 (60%)
≥ 40 11 65 (39%) 101 (61%)
 Journal impact factor (cat) 0 – 2 10 59 (34%) 116 (66%)
2 – 4 13 33 (22%) 117 (78%)
≥ 4 12 99 (44%) 125 (56%)
Author characteristics Category N publications n citations (%) realized n citations (%) not realized
 Gender Male 24 148 (35%) 269 (65%)
Female 12 43 (28%) 110 (72%)
 Country Belgium 12 112 (44%) 143 (56%)
Other North West Europe 8 22 (24%) 71 (76%)
UK 3 7 (14%) 44 (86%)
Germany 2 11 (44%) 14 (56%)
Netherlands 1 4 (57%) 3 (43%)
Norway 1 0 (0%) 10 (100%)
Sweden 1 0 0
South Europe 12 32 (23%) 105 (77%)
Italy 5 15 (19%) 65 (81%)
Spain 4 17 (43%) 23 (58%)
France 2 0 (0%) 5 (100%)
Croatia 1 0 (0%) 12 (100%)
North America 4 25 (29%) 60 (71%)
USA 3 17 (30%) 39 (70%)
Canada 1 8 (28%) 21 (72%)
 Type of affiliation University 27 154 (34%) 303 (66%)
Government 2 8 (25%) 24 (75%)
Industry 1 1 (8%) 11 (92%)
Other 6 28 (41%) 41 (59%)
 Citation characteristics category   n citations (%) realized n citations (%) not realized
 Time to citation (in years) 0 – <1   26 (29%) 63 (71%)
1 – <2   42 (40%) 64 (60%)
2 – <3   30 (37%) 52 (63%)
3 – <4   23 (29%) 55 (71%)
4 – <5   24 (39%) 38 (61%)
5 – <6   16 (35%) 30 (65%)
6 – <7   12 (29%) 30 (71%)
7 – <8   7 (26%) 20 (74%)
≥ 8   11 (29%) 27 (71%)
 Authority 0 – 5   41 (23%) 134 (77%)
6 – 50   105 (37%) 177 (63%)
≥ 51   45 (40%) 68 (60%)
 Self-citation No   137 (28%) 349 (72%)
Yes   54 (64%) 30 (36%)