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Table 3 Odds ratios (95% CIs) for the chance of being cited, all types of articles included, N = 36, n = 570)

From: Selective citation in the literature on swimming in chlorinated water and childhood asthma: a network analysis

Article characteristics, study outcome Crude OR Adjusted ORa
 Authors’ conclusion (pos vs neg) 1.4 (0.9–2.3) 1.8 (1.1–2.9)
 Data-based conclusion (pos vs neg)b 1.4 (0.8–2.3)
Article characteristics, other content-related Crude OR Adjusted ORa
 Article type (empirical vs narrative) 4.2 (2.6–6.7)
 Sample size (ref: low)b
  medium 4.2 (2.1–8.4)
  high 5.8 (2.9–11.6)
 Study quality (fair vs poor)c 1.6 (0.7–3.2) 1.4 (0.6–3.0)
 Specificity (cont) 1.3 (1.1–1.6) 1.4 (1.2–1.7)
Article characteristics, not content-related Crude OR Adjusted ORa
 Language d d
 Conclusive title (yes vs no) 1.3 (0.9–2.0) 1.2 (0.8–1.8)
 Funding source (ref: exclusively non-profit)
  profit or both profit/non-profit 1.6 (0.9–2.6) 1.6 (0.9–2.7)
  not reported 0.2 (0.1–0.4) 0.3 (0.2–0.5)
 Number of authors (ref: 1 – 2)
  3 – 4 2.2 (1.2–4.0) 2.1 (1.2–4.0)
  5 – 6 6.0 (3.0–11.9) 3.2 (1.5–6.6)
  ≥ 7 2.9 (1.6–5.1) 1.7 (0.9–3.2)
 Number of affiliations (ref: 1)
  2 2.0 (1.2–3.3) 1.7 (1.0–2.9)
  ≥ 3 2.2 (1.4–3.4) 1.4 (0.9–2.3)
 Number of references (ref: < 25)
  25 – 40 4.7 (2.6–8.6) 3.3 (1.7–6.1)
  ≥ 40 5.1 (2.7–9.6) 5.1 (2.6–9.8)
 Journal impact factor (ref: 0 – 2)
  2 – 4 0.5 (0.3–0.9) 0.7 (0.4–1.1)
  ≥ 4 1.9 (1.2–3.1) 2.0 (1.2–3.3)
Author characteristics Crude OR Adjusted ORa
 Gender (female vs male) 0.8 (0.5–1.2) 0.6 (0.4–0.9)
 Country (ref: Belgium)
  Other North West Europe 0.8 (0.4–1.7) 0.9 (0.4–1.9)
  South Europe 0.4 (0.2–0.7) 0.4 (0.2–0.7)
  North America 0.4 (0.2–1.0) 0.3 (0.1–0.7)
 Type of affiliation (other vs university) 1.1 (0.7–1.8) 0.8 (0.5–1.4)
Citation characteristics Crude OR Adjusted ORa
 Time to citation (cont, in years) 1.0 (1.0–1.1) 1.0 (0.9–1.1)
 Authority (ref: low)
  medium 2.4 (1.5–4.0) 2.8 (1.7–4.6)
  high 4.1 (2.2–7.8) 4.1 (2.1–8.0)
 Self-citation (yes vs no)e 4.6 (2.8–7.5) 5.2 (3.1–8.8)
  1. N number of articles, n number of potential citation paths
  2. aAdjusted for article type (categories: non-empirical vs empirical)
  3. bOnly for empirical studies
  4. cOnly for cross-sectional studies
  5. dModel did not converge
  6. eAnalyzed with fixed model logistic regression