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Table 2 Forms of peer review categorised by dimension and attributes

From: The changing forms and expectations of peer review

Dimension Attribute Range
Selection conditions Timing a. No review
b. Pre-submission (including registered reports)
c. Pre-publication
d. Post-publication
e. Mixed methods
Selectiveness a. Merely access review
b. Non-selective review
c. Selective review
Identities and access Type of reviewer a. Editor-in-chief
b. Editorial committee
c. External reviewers selected by authors
d. External reviewers selected by editor(s)
e. Wider community / readers
f. Commercial review platforms
Anonymity of authors a. Author identities are blinded to editor and reviewer
b. Author identities are blinded to reviewer but known to editor
c. Author identities are known to editor and reviewer
Anonymity of reviewers a. Anonymous reviewers
b. Reviewers identities are open to the authors
c. Reviewers identities are open to the reader
Availability of review reports a. Review reports are openly available
b. Review reports are only available to authors, editors and reviewers
Interaction a. No interaction between authors/reviewers
b. Reviewers only: interaction among reviewers
c. Authors and reviewers: interaction between authors and reviewers
Specialisation in review Structure a. Unstructured
b. Semi-structured: Reviewers are guided by some open questions or are presented with several criteria for judgement
c. Structured: Review occurs through mandatory forms or checklists to be filled in by reviewers
Statistical review a. Not applicable
b. Incorporated in review
c. Performed by additional, specialist reviewer
d. Performed through automatic computer software
Training a. No specific guidance or training available to/required from reviewers
b. Guide for reviewers available (either online or on paper)
c. Training/courses available for/required from reviewers
d. No specific guidance or training available to/required from reviewers
Technological tools in review Technical support a. Review is performed manually
b. Technical assistance in the form of plagiarism check
c. Technical assistance in statistical review
d. Technical assistance in image manipulation
e. Other Technical support (e.g. machine learning techniques to assess consistency and completeness)
Reader commentary a. No reader commentary facilitated
b. In channel reader commentary facilitated
c. Out of channel reader commentary facilitated