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Table 1 Assessment of sex/gender integration in original investigations, overall and by journal and study type

From: Measuring the data gap: inclusion of sex and gender reporting in diabetes research

  Number of original investigations meeting assessment metric (%)
Article section Sex/gender assessment metric All original investigations N = 155 Original investigations in general medicine journals N = 23 Original investigations in diabetes-specific journals N = 132 Randomized controlled trials N = 115 Observational studiesN = 40
Title & abstract Sex/gender noted in the title 2 (1.3) 0 (0.0) 2 (1.5) 1 (0.9) 1 (2.5)
Sex/gender noted in abstract 27 (17.4) 2 (8.7) 25 (18.9) 15 (13.0) 12 (30.0)
Introduction Sex/gender issues discussed in introduction 15 (9.7) 2 (8.7) 13 (9.8) 5 (4.3) 10 (25.0)
Methods Plan to control for sex/gender in analysis 47 (30.3) 5 (21.7) 42 (31.8) 23 (20.0) 24 (60.0)
Plan to stratify results by sex/gender 12 (7.7) 2 (8.7) 10 (7.6) 5 (4.3) 7 (17.5)
Results Reporting participant sex/gender:
 • Reported % female participants only 36 (23.2) 6 (26.1) 30 (22.7) 30 (26.1) 6 (15.0)
 • Reported % males participants only 57 (36.8) 9 (39.1) 48 (36.4) 36 (31.3) 21 (52.5)
 • Reported % both male & female participants 58 (37.4) 7 (30.4) 51 (38.6) 45 (39.1) 13 (32.5)
 • Did not report sex/gender distribution of participants 4 (2.6) 1 (4.3) 3 (2.3) 4 (3.5) 0 (0.0)
Reporting results by sex/gender:
 • At least one outcome (but not all) reported by sex/gender 24 (15.5) 5 (21.7) 19 (14.4) 17 (14.8) 7 (17.5)
 • All outcomes reported by sex/gender 10 (6.5) 1 (4.3) 9 (6.8) 3 (2.6) 7 (17.5)
 • No outcomes reported by sex/gender 121 (78.1) 17 (73.9) 104 (78.8) 95 (82.6) 26 (65.0)
Discussion Sex issues discussed 21 (13.5) 0 (0.0) 21 (15.9) 9 (7.8) 12 (30.0)
Gender issues discussed 1 (0.6) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.8) 1 (0.9) 0 (0.0)
Limitations Limitations pertaining to sex/gender issues discussed 4 (2.6) 2 (8.7) 2 (1.5) 4 (3.5) 0 (0.0)