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Table 1 Overview of instruments used in survey questionnaire

From: Explaining variance in perceived research misbehavior: results from a survey among academic researchers in Amsterdam

Construct of interest Instrument (reference), interpretation # items, (# subscales) Reliability of scores
Individual factors Gender (male*/female)
Academic rank (PhD student*, postdoc or assistant professor, associate or full professor)
Disciplinary field (biomedical sciences, natural sciences, social sciences and humanities*)
3 Not applicable.
Climate factors SOURCE [17], The higher the subscale score, the more positive the perceptions of the research climate. 28 (7) Cronbach’s α ranges from .81 to .87
Publication factors PPQr [18], The higher the subscale score, the more negative the perceptions of the publication system. 18 (3) Cronbach’s α ranges from .75 to .80
Research misbehaviors List of QRPs and RM [5] 60 Generalizability coefficients for perceived frequency is .80 and .89 for perceived impact, respectively.
  1. * reference category- to ease interpretation, we chose the group with the highest or the lowest score